Leonor Josefina Romero Lauro


Assistant Professor of Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology in the Department of Psychology,  University of Milano-Bicocca, since 2011. MS in Psychology at the University of Palermo (110/110 con Lode), PhD in Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Milano-Bicocca and  Post-Doc at the Department of Clinical Science, Hospital L. Sacco, University of Milano. Two years of research experience abroad as visiting fellow, one at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UCL, Londra, UK , another at the National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, US. Member of the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Economics, Psychology and Social Sciences  (CISEPS, unimib), of the Milan Center for Neuroscience (NeuroMI) and of the Italian Society of Neuropsychology.


Research on cortical plasticity, excitability and effective connectivity, on healthy and clinical population, using an integrated system combining Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electroencephalography (TMS-EEG).

Research on the neural correlates of higher cognitive functions, such as memory, language, and emotion regulation, using neuroimaging techniques and non invasive cerebral stimulation techniques, such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

Clinical applications of non invasive cerebral stimulation techniques (TMS and tDCS) for the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits in neuropsychological patients and for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Neuroeconomics: neurophysiological markers of economic behaviour.



The project aims at exploring cerebral plasticity using the innovative TMS-EEG technique. In particular, current experimental studies focus on cortical excitability and connectivity modulations induced by tDCS application, both on healthy and clinical population, and by task performance involving several cognitive functions (verbal fluency, mechanical limb use, multisensory perception, face processing).


The project aims at testing the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation application, in particular of tDCS, in the rehabilitation of neuropsychological patients’ cognitive deficit and for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. More specifically, current studies focus on tDCS effects in the treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder and Eating Disorders.


The project arises from a collaboration between the Department of Economy and the Department of Psychology, within CISEPS interdisciplinary group, and aims at exploring the neurophysiological underpinnings of the cognitive processes involved in economic behavior. In particular, current studies explore motor cortex excitability modulations during different types of economic games (Ultimatum Game, Dictator Game, Third Party Game). www.neurostimulab.com


  1. Romero Lauro LJ, Rosanova M, Mattavelli G, Convento S, Pisoni A, Opitz A, Bolognini N, Vallar G. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)  increases cortical excitability: direct evidence from TMS-EEG. Cortex. 2014 Sep;58:99-111. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2014.05.003. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
  2. Pisoni A, Lo Gerfo E, Ottone S, Ponzano F, Zarri L, Vergallito A, Romero Lauro LJ. Fair play doesn’t matter: MEP modulation as a neurophysiological signature of status quo bias in economic interactions. Neuroimage. 2014 Nov 1;101:150-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.06.056. Epub 2014 Jun 28.
  3. Mattavelli G, Rosanova M, Casali AG, Papagno C, Romero Lauro LJ. Top-down interference and cortical responsiveness in face processing: a TMS-EEG study. Neuroimage. 2013 Aug 1;76:24-32. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.03.020. Epub 2013 Mar 21.
  4. Riva P, Romero Lauro LJ, Dewall CN, Bushman BJ. Buffer the pain away: stimulating the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex reduces pain following social exclusion. Psychol Sci. 2012 Dec;23(12):1473-5. doi: 10.1177/0956797612450894. Epub 2012 Nov 6.
  5. Lauro LJ, Reis J, Cohen LG, Cecchetto C, Papagno C. A case for the involvement of phonological loop in sentence comprehension.  Neuropsychologia. 2010 Dec;48(14):4003-11. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.10.019. Epub 2010 Oct 20.


  • Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK (Prof. Gregory Thut)
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, US (Dr. Leonardo G. Cohen)